Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS)

The condition of Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS) is a serious issue that occurs in 10% of all concussion cases. The diagnosis of PCS can be given “when symptoms of a concussion are present for longer than expected.” Athletes who suffer from PCS experience a continuation of the acute symptoms associated with concussions. Normal cases of PCS last over several years, but there have been reports of short term cases of PCS lasting just under one year.

Second-Impact Syndrome (SIS)

Second-Impact Syndrome (SIS) occurs “when an individual who has had one head injury receives a second head injury before the brain has recovered from the first head injury.” As a result of the second impact, the brain undergoes rapid swelling and herniation resulting in brainstem failure within 2 to 5 minutes of the second impact. Any athlete who experiences a head injury is at immediate risk of Second-Impact. Because of the imminent risk of one’s life that is associated with Second-Impact Syndrome, it is vital that all athletes who experience head injuries be immediately examined thoroughly for any sign of concussion before returning to play.

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